KCSE PHYSICS SYLLABUS
- Specific Objectives
- Physics as a Science(reference to Primary Science Syllabus)
- Meaning of Physics
- Branches of Physics
- Relation between Physics, other subjects and technology
- Career opportunities in Physics
- Basic laboratory safety rules
- Specific Objectives
- Definition of length, area, volume, mass, density and time
- SI units and symbols
- Estimation of quantities
- Conversion of units
- Measuring instruments
- Experiments on density
- Problems on density
- Specific Objectives
- Definition of force
- Types of forces (including cohesive, adhesive and surface tension)
- Experiments to demonstrate cohesion, adhesion and surface tension.
- Effects of force
- Mass, weight and their relationship
- Scalar and vector quantities
- Problem involving W = mg (take g = 10 N/kg)
- Specific Objectives
- Definition of pressure
- Pressure in solids
- Factors affecting pressure in fluid (Experimental treatment required)
- Derivation of P = ρgh
- Atmospheric pressure
- Simple mercury barometer, manometers
- Applications of pressure: drinking straw, syringe, siphon, hydraulic press, hydraulic brakes, bicycle pump, force pump, lift pump
- Problems on pressure
- Project Work:
- Construct a hydraulic press model.
- Specific Objectives
- Experiments to show that matter is made up of tiny particles (e.g cutting papers into small pieces, dilution experiments)
- Brownian motion
- States of matter
- Diffusion (Graham’s law not required)
- Specific Objectives
- Temperature
- Thermometers:
- – liquid-in-glass,
- – clinical,
- – six’s maximum and minim
- Expansion of solids, liquids and gases
- Effects of expansion and contraction
- Unusual expansion of water (Anomalous expansion)
- Applications of thermal expansion (include Bimetallic strip)
- Specific Objectives
- Heat and temperature
- Modes of heat transfer
- Factors affecting heat transfer (experimental treatment required)
- Applications of heat transfer on:
- Vacuum flask,
- Domestic hot-water system,
- Solar concentrators
- Specific Objectives
- Rectilinear propagation of light (experimental treatment required)
- Formation of shadows and eclipses (umbra and penumbra)
- Pin-hole camera image formation and magnification
- Laws of reflection
- Images formed by plane minors, ray diagrams, parallel and inclined mirrors
- Devices based on reflection: periscope, kaleidoscope
- Problems on pin-hole camera and mirrors inclined at an angle
- Project Work
- Construct Pin-hole Camera, Periscope and Kaleidoscope.
- Specific Objectives
- Electrostatic charging of objects by rubbing (experimental treatment required)
- Types of charges and law of charges
- The source of charge
- The coulomb
- Leaf electroscope: features, charging and discharging
- Charging by contact and by induction
- Identification of charge
- Conductors and insulators
- Specific Objectives
- Simple electric circuits: cell, ammeter, voltmeter, variable resistor, connecting wires, bulb and switches
- Circuit symbols
- Electric current and its units
- Primary and secondary cells (simple cell, dry Leclanche’ cell, Lead acid cell)
- Care and maintenance of secondary cells
- Project Work:
- Making a simple cell from locally available materials.
- Specific Objectives
- Magnets: properties and uses
- Magnetic and non-magnetic materials
- Basic law of magnetism
- Magnetic field patterns
- Magnetisation and demagnetization
- Domain theory of magnetism
- Care of magnets
- Construction of a simple compass
- Specific Objectives
- Measurement of length using Vemier callipers and micrometer screw gauge
- Decimal places, significant figures and standard form
- Estimation of the diameter of the molecule of oil (relate to the size of the HIV virus, mention effects of oil spills on health and environment)
- Problems in measurements
- Project Work:
- Construct Vernier Calliper.
- Specific Objectives
- Moment of a force, unit of moment of a force
- Principle of moments
- Problems on principle of moments (consider single pivot only)
- Specific Objectives
- Centre of gravity (Experimental treatment required)
- States of equilibrium
- Factors affecting stability
- Applications of stability
- Problems on centre of gravity and moments of a force (consider single pivot only)
- Specific Objectives
- Concave and convex parabolic reflectors
- Principal axis, principal focus, centre of curvature and related terms
- Location of Images formed by curved mirrors by construction method (Experiment on concave mirrors required)
- Magnification formula
- Applications of curved reflectors
- Specific Objectives
- Magnetic field due to a current
- Oersted’s experiment
- Magnetic field patterns on straight conductors and solenoid (right hand grip rule)
- Simple electromagnets
- Factors affecting strength of an electromagnet
- Motor effect (Fleming’s left hand rule)
- Factors affecting force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field (Qualitative treatment only)
- Applications:
- – electric bell,
- – simple electric motor
- Project Work
- Construct an electromagnet and at least one of the following:
- – loudspeaker
- – telephone receiver
- – electric bell
- – electric motor
- Construct an electromagnet and at least one of the following:
- Specific Objectives
- Hooke’s law
- Spring constant
- Spring balance
- Problems on Hooke’s Law
- Specific Objectives
- Pulses and waves
- Transverse and longitudinal waves
- Amplitude (a), Wavelength (λ), frequency (f) periodic time (T)
- v = fλ
- Problems involving v = fλ
- Specific Objectives
- Sound: nature and sources (experimental treatment required)
- Propagation of sound: compressions and rarefactions
- Speed of sound by echo method
- Factors affecting speed of sound
- Problems on velocity of sound
- Specific Objectives
- Streamline and turbulent flow
- Equation of continuity
- Bernoulli’s effect (Experimental treatment required)
- Applications of Bernoulli’s effect: Bunsen burner, spray gun, carburetor, aerofoil, spinning ball, etc.
- Problems on equation of continuity
- Specific Objectives
- Distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration (Experimental treatment required)
- Acceleration due to gravity
- – free-fall,
- – simple pendulum method (experimental treatment required)
- Motion-time graphs:
- Displacement- time graphs,
- Velocity-time graphs (Experimental treatment required)
- Equations of uniformly accelerated motion
- Problems on uniformly accelerated motion
- Specific Objectives
- Refraction of light – laws of refraction (Experimental treatment required)
- Determination of refractive index:
- – Snell’s law,
- – real/apparent depth,
- – critical angle
- Dispersion of Experimental Total internal effects: critical angle
- Applications of total internal reflection:
- – Prism periscope,
- – Optical fibre
- Problems on refractive index and critical angle
- Specific Objectives
- Newton’s laws of motion (Experimental treatment on inertia required)
- Conservation of linear momentum: elastic collisions, inelastic collisions, recoil velocity, impulse (oblique collisions not required).
- F = ma.
- Frictional forces: Static and dynamic friction
- – advantages and disadvantages,
- – viscosity,
- – terminal velocity (qualitative treatment).
- Problems on Newton’s Laws and law of conservation of linear momentum (exclude problems on elastic collisions)
- Specific Objectives
- Forms of energy and energy transformations
- Sources of energy:
- – renewable,
- – non-renewable
- Law of conservation of energy
- Work, energy and power (work done by resolved force not required)
- Kinetic and potential energy
- Simple machines
- Problems on work, energy, power and machines
- Project Work:
- Construct an energy saving jiko and a solar heater
- Specific Objectives
- Scale reading: Ammeter, Voltmeter
- Electric circuits: current, potential difference
- Ohm’s law (experimental treatment required)
- Resistance: types of resistors, measurements of resistance and units.
- Electromotive force (emf) and internal resistance of a cell (E = V + Ir)
- Resistors in series and in parallel
- Galvanometers: Conversion to ammeters and voltmeters
- Problems on Ohm’s law, resistors in series and in parallel.
- Specific Objectives
- Properties of waves including sound waves: reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference (Experimental treatment required)
- Constructive interference and destructive interference (qualitative treatment only)
- Stationary waves (qualitative and experimental treatment required)
- Specific Objectives
- Electric field patterns
- Charge distribution on conductors: spherical and pear shaped conductors
- Action at points: lightning arrestors
- Capacitance, unit of capacitance (farad, microfarad), factors affecting capacitance
- Applications of capacitors
- Problems on capacitors {using Q=CV, C = C + C, 1/C = 1/C + 1/C}
- Specific Objectives
- Simple experiments on heating effect
- Factors affecting electrical energy, W = VIt, P =VI
- Heating devices:- electric kettle, electric iron, bulb filament, electric heater
- Problems on electrical energy and electrical power
- Specific Objectives
- Heat capacity, specific heat capacity, units (Experimental treatment required)
- Latent heat of fusion, latent heat of vaporization, units (Experimental treatment necessary)
- Boiling and melting
- Pressure cooker, refrigerator
- Problem on quantity of heat (Q=MC)
- Project Work:
- Construct a charcoal refrigerator (cooler)
- Specific Objectives
- Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, pressure law, absolute zero
- Kelvin scale of temperature
- Gas laws and kinetic theory of gases
- Problems on gas laws (including PV/T = constant)
- Specific Objectives
- Types of lenses
- Ray diagrams and terms used
- Images formed: ray construction, characteristics, magnification.
- Determination of Focal length: (Experimental treatment required)
- estimation method,
- lens formula,
- lens-minor method
- Human eye, defects (short sightedness and long sightedness only)
- Optical devices:
- simple microscope,
- compound microscope,
- the camera
- Problems involving the lens formula and the magnification formula
- Specific Objectives
- The radian, angular displacement, angular velocity
- Centripetal force; F = mv/r, F=mrw (derivation of formulae not required; experimental treatment is necessary)
- Applications of uniform circular motion
- Centrifuge, vertical, horizontal circles banked tracks (calculations on banked tracks and conical pendulum not required)
- Problem solving (Apply F=mv^{2}/r, F=mrw^{2})
- Specific Objectives
- Archimedes’ principle, Law of flotation (experimental treatment)
- Relative density
- Applications of Archimedes’ principle and relative density
- Problems on Archimedes’ principle
- Project Work:
- Construct a hydrometer.
- Specific Objectives
- Electromagnetic spectrum
- Properties of electromagnetic waves
- Detection of electromagnetic (e.m) radiations
- Applications of e.m radiations (include greenhouse effect)
- Problems involving c =fλ
- Specific Objectives
- Simple experiments to illustrate electromagnetic induction
- Induced emf:
- Faradays’ law,
- Lenz’s law
- Mutual induction
- Alternating current generator, direct current generator
- Fleming’s right hand-rule
- Transformers
- Applications of electromagnetic induction:
- – induction coil,
- – moving coil loudspeaker
- Problems on transformers
- Project Work:
- Construct a simple transformer.
- Specific Objectives
- Sources of mains electricity
- Power transmission (include dangers of high voltage transmission)
- Domestic wiring system
- Kw-hr, consumption and cost of electrical energy
- Problems on mains electricity
- Excursion:
- Field trip to a power station is recommended.
- Specific Objectives
- Production of cathode rays; cathode ray tube
- Properties of cathode rays
- C.R.O. and T.V. tubes
- Uses of CR0.
- Problems on C.R.O.
Note: Demonstration with CR0 is suggested.
- Specific Objectives
- Production of X-rays, X-rays tube
- Energy changes in an X-ray tube
- Properties of X-rays soft X-rays and hard X-rays
- Dangers of X-rays and precautions
- Uses of X-rays (Bragg’s law not required)
- Problems on X-rays
- Specific Objectives
- Photoelectric effect, photons, threshold frequency; work function, Planck’s constant, and electron volt.
- Factors affecting photoelectric emission
- Energy of Photons
- Einstein’s equation (h = hf + 1/2 mv)
- Applications of photoelectric effect:
- – photo emissive,
- – photo conductive,
- – photovoltaic cells
- Problems on photoelectric emissions
- Project Work:
- Construct a burglar alarm.
- Specific Objectives
- Radioactive decay
- Half-life
- Types of radiations, properties of radiations
- Detectors of radiation,
- Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion
- Nuclear equations
- Hazards of radioactivity, precautions
- Applications
- Problems on half-life (integration not required)
- Specific Objectives
- Conductors, semi-conductors, insulators
- Intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductors
- Doping
- p-n junction diode
- Applications of diodes: half wave rectification and full-wave rectification
- Project Work:
- Construct a simple radio receiver
KCSE MATHEMATICS SYLLABUS
- Specific Objectives
- Place values of numbers
- Round off numbers to the nearest tens, hundreds, thousands, millions and billions
- Odd numbers
- Even numbers
- Prime numbers
- Word problems involving natural numbers
Notes
- Include reading and writing large numbers – millions and billions
- Use word problems to involve the four basic operations
- Reinforce the idea of place value and total value of natural numbers.
Suggested Resources
- Place value charts
- The abacus
- Bank Cheques and Statements
- Puzzles and games
- Specific Objectives
- Factors of composite numbers
- Prime factors
- Factors in power form
Notes
- Use of “index” for “power” is discouraged at this stage.
Suggested Resources
- Charts to illustrate factorisation e.g. factor tree diagrams.
- Puzzles and game
- Specific Objectives
- Divisibility test of numbers by 2, 3, 4,5,6,8,9,10, and 11
Suggested Resources
- Multiplication table
- Charts to illustrate divisibility test
- Puzzles and games
- Specific Objectives
- Greatest common divisor of a set of numbers
- Application of GCD/HCF to real life situations
Suggested Resources
- Containers of different capacities
- Specific Objectives
- Multiples of a number
- LCM of a set of numbers
- Application of LCM in real life situations
Suggested Resources
Bells, flickering light, alarms,
Containers of different capacities etc.
- Specific Objectives
- Integers
- The number line
- Operation on integers
- Order of operations
- Application to real life situations
Notes
- Practical exercises are encouraged
- More practice required on directed numbers especially when subtracting negative integers
- Explain terms.
Suggested Resources
- the number line
- stairways
- ladder
- thermometer
- real life situations
- Specific Objectives
- Fractions
- Proper, improper fractions and mixed numbers
- Conversion of improper fractions to mixed numbers and vice versa
- Comparing fractions
- Operations on fractions
- Order of operations on fractions
- Word problems involving fractions in real life situations
Notes
- Treat fractions with positive and negative cases in the same way as integers or as directed numbers.
- Give emphasis and time to the correct order of operations.
- Use of real objects is encouraged
- Include equivalent fractions
Suggested Resources
- Chart illustrating operations on fractions and equivalent fractions
- Specific Objectives
- Fractions and decimals
- Recurring decimals
- Recurring decimals and fractions
- Decimal places
- Standard form
- Operations on decimals
- Order of operations
- Real life problems involving decimals
Notes
- Explain the recurring decimal notation of the form:
- 6.3 = (6.33…)
- 6.34 = (6.3434…)
- 6.34 = (6.3444…)
- 6.345 = (6.345345….)
- Explain numbers in standard form i.e. A x 10^{n }where A < 10 and n is an integer
- Mention the use of statements such as 5.6 million, 3.9 million, 2.1 billion
- Emphasize on the cancellation process on problems of the type;
- 0.036 x 0.0049
- 0.07 x 0.048
Suggested Resources
- Real life situations
- Puzzles and games
- Specific Objectives
- Squares by multiplication
- Squares from tables
- Square roots by factorization
- Square roots from tables
Notes
- Use four figure mathematical tables.
- When finding the square roots of a number, the number should be written in the form
- A x l0ⁿ where l ≤ A < l00 and n is an even integer.
Suggested Resources
- Mathematical tables
- Real life experiences
- Puzzles and games
- Specific Objectives
- Letters for numbers
- Algebraic expressions including algebraic fractions
- Simplification of algebraic expressions
- Factorisation by grouping
- Removal of brackets
- Substitution and evaluation
- Problem solving in real life situation
Notes
- Use the idea of like and unlike terms in simplification and factorisation of algebraic expressions
- Use the term expansion when removing brackets
- Apply brackets in simplifying expressions
Suggested Resources
- Real life experiences
- Puzzles and games
- Specific Objectives
- Rates
- Solving problems involving rates
- Ratio
- Comparing quantities using ratio
- Increase and decrease in a given ratio
- Comparing ratios
- Proportion: direct and inverse.
- Solve problems involving direct and inverse proportions.
- Fractions and decimals as percentages
- Percentage increase and decrease
- Application of rates, ratios, percentages and proportion to real life situations
Notes
- Exclude graphs on rates at this stage
- Include speed, velocity and acceleration
Suggested resources
- Real life situations involving quantities, shares, sharing etc.
- Specific Objectives
- Units of length
- Conversion of units of length from one form to another
- Significant figures
- Perimeter
- Circumference (include length of arcs)
Notes
- Encourage practical approach to establish the value of it and the relationship C = πD or C=2πr (Include lengths of arcs taken as fractions of circumference)
Suggested Resources
- Measuring instrument e.g. Metre rule, vernier callipers, micrometer screw gauge, tape measure etc.
- Environment
- Practical exercises in measuring
- Specific Objectives
- Units of area
- Conversion of units of area
- Area of regular plane figures
- Area of irregular plane shapes
- Surface area of cube, cuboid and cylinder
Notes
- Deriving area of circle practically using very small sectors is required.
- Include “acres” and “hectares”
- Derive surface area of cylinders.
- Include combined areas of shapes
- Include conversion of cm^{2}to m^{2}etc.
Suggested Resources
- Model of cube, cuboid and cylinder
- Charts illustrating regular plane figures
- Plane figures
- Environment
- Practical exercises in the process of deriving formulae for area
- Specific Objectives
- Units of volume
- Conversion of units of volume
- Volume of cube, cuboid and cylinders
- Units of capacity
- Conversion of units of capacity
- Relationship between volume and capacity
- Solving problems involving volume and capacity
Notes
- Deriving the formula for finding volume of a cylinder is not required.
- Involve conversion of cm^{3 }to m^{3}etc
Suggested Resources
- Containers
- Measuring cylinders
- Burettes
- Practical exercises.
- Specific Objectives
- Mass and units of mass
- Density
- Problem solving involving real life experiences on mass, volume and density and weight
- Weight and units of weight
- Mass and weight
Notes
- Explain the difference between mass and weight
- Explain the relationship;
- mass = density x volume (and units of volume, density and mass)
Suggested Resources
- Beam balance
- Lactometer
- Hydrometer
- Practical exercises in finding density of solids
- Specific Objectives
- Units of time
- 12 hour and 24 hour systems
- Travel time tables
- Problem solving involving travel time tables
Notes
- Actual travel time-tables should be used
- Include speed and distance
- Mention distance and fare
Suggested Resources
- Charts illustrating conversion of time from one system to another
- Clocks and watches
- Travel time table charts for buses, trains, ships and aeroplanes
- Specific Objectives
- Linear equations in one unknown
- Simultaneous linear equations
- Formation and solution of linear equations in one and two unknowns from given real life situations
Suggested Resources
- Beam balances
- Real life situations and experiences
- Puzzles and games
- Specific Objectives
- Linear equations in one unknown
- Simultaneous linear equations
- Formation and solution of linear equations in one and two unknowns from given real life situations
Suggested Resources
- Beam balances
- Real life situations and experiences
- Puzzles and games
- Specific Objectives
- Cartesian plane
- Cartesian co-ordinates
- Points on the Cartesian plane
- Choice of appropriate scale
- Table of values for a given linear relation
- Linear graphs
- Graphical solutions of simultaneous linear equations
- Interpretation of graphs
Notes
- Co-ordinates should include both positive and negative values
Suggested Resources
- Cartesian plane
- Square board
- Pegboards/geoboards
- Graph papers
- Topographical maps
- Specific Objectives
- Types of angles
- Angles on a straight line
- Angles at a point
- Angles on a transversal
- Corresponding angles
- Angle properties of polygons
- Application to real life situations
Notes
- Include exterior angles of a polygon
- Include the formula for finding the sum of interior angles of a polygon i.e. sum = 2(n-2) right angles or 180(n-2), where n is the number of sides. This formula should be derived.
Suggested Resources
- Geometrical instruments
- Polygonal shapes
- Practical exercises
- Specific Objectives
- Construction of lines and angles using a ruler and compasses only
- Construction of perpendicular and parallel lines using a ruler and a set square only
- Proportional division of a line
- Construction of regular polygons (up to a hexagon)
- Construction of irregular polygons (up to a hexagon)
Notes
- The polygons should include triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons trapezia, parallelograms, hexagons, octagons etc.
Suggested Resources
- Geometrical instruments,
- Polygonal shapes
- Practical exercises
- Specific Objectives
- Types of scales
- Choice of scales
- Sketches from given information and scale drawing.
- Bearings
- Bearings, distance and locating points
- Angles of elevation and depression
- Solving problems involving bearings, scale drawing, angles of elevation and depression
- Simple surveying techniques
Notes
- Accuracy to be emphasized
- Should include true and compass bearings
- Include problems involving a combination of bearings, angles of elevation and depression and scale drawing
Suggested Resources
- Geometrical instruments
- Clinometer
- Magnetic compass
- Metre rule
- Tape measure
- Practical exercises
- Specific Objectives
- Common solids, e.g. cubes, cuboids pyramids, prisms, cones, spheres, cylinders etc.
- Sketches of solids
- Nets of solids
- Models of solids from nets
- Surface area of solids from nets (include cubes, cuboids, cones, pyramids, prisms)
- Distance between two points on the surface of a solid
Notes
- Making and use of models recommended.
Suggested Resources
- Geometrical instruments
- Manila papers
- Models of solids
- Practical exercises
- Specific Objectives
- Cubes of numbers by multiplication
- Cubes from tables
- Cube roots of numbers by factor method
- Evaluation of cube and cube root expressions
- Application of cubes and cube roots to real life situations
Notes
- Cube roots should be found by using factor method first before using tables
Suggested Resources
- Mathematical tables
- Real life situations
- Specific Objectives
- Reciprocals of numbers by division
- Reciprocals of numbers from tables
- Computation using reciprocals
Notes
- Decimal numbers should be converted to standard form before finding their reciprocals using tables.
Suggested Resources
- Mathematical tables
- Specific Objectives
- Indices (powers) and base.
- Laws of indices (including positive integers, negative integers and fractional indices)
- Powers of 10 and common logarithms
- Common logarithms;
- characteristics
- mantissa
- Logarithm tables
- Application of common logarithms in multiplication, division and finding roots
Notes
- Introduce laws using integral indices.
- Laws of indices should include:
- a^{m} x aⁿ = aⁿ
- a^{m} ÷√a^{n} = a^{m-n}
- (a ^{m})^{n}= a^{mn}
- a^{0} = 1
- 1/a^{m} = a^{-m}
- a^{m/n} = ^{n}√a^{m}
Suggested Resources
- Logarithm tables
- Charts illustrating laws of indices
- Specific Objectives
- Gradient of a straight line
- Equation of a straight line
- The equation of a straight line of the form y = mx + c
- The x and y intercepts of a line
- The graph of a straight line
- Perpendicular lines and their gradients
- Parallel lines and their gradients
- Equations of parallel and perpendicular lines.
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, graph books, straight edges/rulers, real lift situations
- Specific Objectives
- Lines and planes of symmetry
- Mirror lines and construction of objects and images.
- Reflection as a transformation
- Reflection in the Cartesian plane.
- Direct and opposite congruency.
- Congruency tests (SSS, SAS, AAS, ASA and RHS)
Notes
- Practical aspects should be used as much as possible
- ASS does not prove triangles congruent except when the triangles are right angled
- Images are oppositely congruent to their objects under reflection
Suggested Resources
- Mirrors, cartesian plane, various symmetrical objects, tracing and graph papers, real life experiences
- Specific Objectives
- Properties of rotation
- Centre and angle of rotation
- Rotation in the Cartesian plane
- Rotational symmetry of plane figures and solids (point axis and order)
- Congruence and rotation
Notes
- Encourage practical
- Emphasise that images are directly congruent to their objects under rotation
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, graph papers, geometrical instruments, tracing paper and real life situations
- Specific Objectives
- Similar figures and their properties
- Construction of similar figures
- Properties of enlargement
- Construction of objects and images under enlargement.
- Enlargement in the Cartesian plane.
- Linear, area and volume scale factors
- Real life situations.
Notes
- Enlargement should include fractional and negative scale factors
- Apply enlargement in the Cartesian coordinate system
Suggested Resources
- Geometrical instruments, models maps photographs, charts illustrating similarity and enlargement.
- Specific Objectives
- Pythagoras Theorem
- Solution of problems using Pythagoras Theorem
- Application to real life situations
Notes
- Use square cuttings to verify Pythagoras Theorem.
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, tape measures and metre rules
- Specific Objectives
- Tangent, sine and cosine of angles.
- Trigonometric tables.
- Angles and sides of a right angled triangle.
- Sine and cosine of complimentary angles.
- Relationship between tangent, sine and cosine.
- Trigonometric ratios of special angles 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°
- Logarithm of a sine, a cosine and a tangent
- Application of trigonometry to real life situations
Notes
- Use a general right angled triangle to define the ratios
- Apply trigonometry to bearings, angles of elevation and depression
Suggested Resources
- Right angled triangles,
- Mathematical tables
- Real life situations
- Specific Objectives
- Area of triangle A = 1/2 ab sin C.
- Area of a triangle A = √{s (s – a) (s – b) (s- c)}
- Application to real life situations
Note
- s = (a +b c)/2 where a, b and c are the sides of triangle ABC
Suggested Resources
- Charts illustrating different ways of showing area of a triangle.
- Specific Objectives
- Area of quadrilaterals.
- Area of other polygons (regular and irregular)
Notes
- Other polygons include pentagon, hexagon, heptagon and octagon.
- Use trigonometry.
Suggested Resources
- Charts illustrating various polygons
- Polygonal shapes
- Specific Objectives
- Area of a sector.
- Area of a segment.
- Area of a common region between two circles.
Suggested Resources
- Circular cut-outs, charts illustrating sectors, segments and common region between two circles.
- Specific Objectives
- Surface area of prisms, pyramids. cones, frustums and spheres
Suggested Resources
- Models of pyramids, frustums, prisms, cones and spheres
- Specific Objectives
- Volume of a prism, a pyramid, a cone, a frustum and a sphere
Notes
- Linear scale factor and volume scale factor may be used in finding the volume of a frustum.
Suggested Resources
- Models of solids (prism, pyramid, cone, frustum and sphere)
- Specific Objectives
- Expansion of algebraic express1onfl
- The three quadratic identities
- Using the three quadratic identities
- Factorisation of quadratic expressions
- Solutions of quadratic equations by factor method
- Formation and solution of quadratic equations
Notes
- Use the idea of area to derive the quadratic identities
- Use quadratic identities to evaluate numerical cases
- Include real life situations
Suggested Resources
- Charts illustrating quadratic identities
- Situations that lead to formation of quadratic equations
- Specific Objectives
- Inequalities on a number line.
- Simple and compound inequality statements.
- Linear inequality in one unknown.
- Graphical representation of linear inequalities.
- Graphical solutions of simultaneous linear inequalities.
- Simple linear inequalities from inequality graphs.
- Inequalities from inequality graphs.
Notes
- Use the inequality symbols correctly.
- Shade the unwanted regions
- Explain the term integral value(s)
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, graph papers
- Specific Objectives
- Displacement, velocity, speed and acceleration
- Determining velocity and acceleration
- Solve problems involving relative speed
- Distance-time graph
- Velocity-time graph
- Interpretation of graphs of linear motion
- Relative speed
Notes
- The terms vector and scalar should not be used at this stage
- Include approaching and overtaking bodies.
- Suggested Resources Linear motion tables, graph papers and drawn graphs.
- Specific Objectives
- Definition of statistics
- Collection and organization of data
- Frequency distribution tables (for grouped and ungrouped data)
- Grouping data
- Mean, mode and median
- Representation of data:
- Line graph
- Bar graph
- Pie chart
- Pictogram
- Histogram
- Frequency polygon
- Interpretation of data
Notes
- Data from the learners’ experiences should be used.
- Class limits and class boundaries should be distinguished.
- Equal and unequal class intervals should be used in drawing and interpreting histograms.
Suggested Resources
- Data from the environment, charts illustrating various presentations of data, etc.
- Specific Objectives
- Arc, chord and segment
- Angles subtended by the same arc at the circumference
- Relationship between angle subtended at the centre and angle subtended on the circumference by the same arc
- Angle in a semi-circle
- Angle properties of a cyclic quadrilateral.
- Finding angles of a cyclic quadrilateral
Notes
- Distinguish between angle subtended by an arc and angle subtended by a chord
- Reasons in the process of solving for angles should be emphasized
Suggested Resources
- Mathematical instruments
- Charts illustrating angle properties of a circle.
- Specific Objectives
- Vector and scalar quantities
- Vector notation
- Representation of vectors
- Equivalent vectors
- Addition of vectors
- Multiplication of a vector by a scalar
- Column vectors
- Position vectors
- Magnitude of a vector
- Midpoint of a vector
- Translation vector
Notes
- Students should be exposed to various vector notations. One of the notations should be adopted.
- Use practical situations to introduce translation
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, graph papers, geometrical instruments.
- Specific Objectives
- Factorisation of quadratic expressions
- Perfect squares
- Completion of the square
- Solution of quadratic equations by completing the square
- Quadratic formula x = {-b ±√(b-4ac)}/2a
- Solution of quadratic equations using the formula.
- Formation of quadratic equations and solving them
- Tables of values for a given quadratic relation
- Graphs of quadratic equations
- Simultaneous equations – one linear and one quadratic
- Application to real life situation
Notes
- Use quadratic equation to solve other related quadratic equations graphically
- Interpret the discriminant i.e. ±√(b-4ac)
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, Graph papers
- Specific Objectives
- Computing using calculators
- Estimations and approximations
- Significant figures
- Absolute, relative, percentage, round-off and truncation errors
- Propagation of errors from simple calculations
- Maximum and minimum errors
Notes
- Use calculators in various computations involving the four basic operations, squares, square roots, cubes and cube roots.
- Confine to errors propagated in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
- Include maximum and minimum errors from operations.
Suggested Resources
- Measuring instruments, calculators, real life experiences
- Specific Objectives
- The unit circle
- Trigonometric ratios from the unit circle
- Trigonometric ratios of angles greater than 360° and negative angles
- Use of trigonometric tables
- Radian measure
- Simple trigonometric graphs
- Derivation of sine and cosine rule
- Solution of triangles
- Application of sine and cosine rule to real situation.
Notes
- Conversion of radians to degrees and vice versa is necessary
- Sine rule:
- a/sinA = b/sinB = c/sinC = 2R
- and Cosine rule:
- a = b + c – 2bc CosA
- Use calculators to verify values of trigonometric ratios
- Apply trigonometry to problems involving bearings and angles of elevation and depression and surveying.
Suggested Resources
- Unit circle, graph paper, square boards, mathematical tables, calculators, real life experiences
- Specific Objectives
- Rational and irrational numbers
- Simplification of surds
- Rationalisation of denominators
Notes
- Determination of conjugates is necessary
- Simplifications be left in surd form unless instructed otherwise
- Where evaluation is required, a calculator may be used but the process of working out the sum must be shown
Suggested Resources
- Charts illustrating process of rationalisation.
- Specific Objectives
- Logarithmic notation
- The laws of logarithms
- Simplification of logarithmic expressions
- Solution of logarithmic equation
- Further computations using logarithmic laws.
Notes
- Logarithmic equations will include indices.
- Logarithmic Laws:
- log(ab) = loga + logb
- log(a/b) = loga – logb
- loga = nloga
Suggested Resources
- Chart illustrating logarithmic laws, logarithm tables, calculators
- Specific Objectives
- Principal rate and time
- Simple interest
- Compound interest using step by step method
- Derivation of compound interest formula
- Calculation using the compound interest formula
- Appreciation and depreciation
- Calculation of appreciation and depreciation using the compound interest formula
- Hire purchase
- Income tax
Notes
- Current income tax schedules to be used.
- Consider cases where compounding is done monthly, quarterly, and semi annually.
Suggested Resources
- Income tax schedule/bands, real life experiences, ready reckoner tables, calculators
- Specific Objectives
- Arcs, chords and tangents
- Lengths of tangents and intersecting chords
- Properties of chords
- Construction of tangents to a circle
- Direct and transverse common tangents to two circles
- Angles in alternate segment
- Circumscribed, inscribed and escribed circles
- Centroid and orthocentre
- Apply knowledge of tangents and chords to real life situations
Notes
- Mention circumcircle, circumcentre, incentre and excentre
Suggested Resources
- Charts to illustrate the various properties, Pulleys and wheels
- Specific Objectives
- Matrix
- Order of a matrix
- Square matrix
- Compatibility in addition and multiplication of matrices
- Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar
- Matrix multiplication
- Identity matrix
- Determinant of a 2 x 2 matrix
- Inverse of a 2 x 2 matrix and singular matrix
Notes
- Reduction of a 2 x 2 matrix to echelon form is not required
Suggested Resources
- Charts illustrating compatibility of matrices, Real life situations, Calculators
- Specific Objectives
- Change of the subject
- Direct, inverse, partial and joint variations
- Constant of proportionality
- Graphs of direct and inverse proportion
- Formation of equation on variation from real life situations
Notes
- Need to clarify the relation connecting “α” and “=“ signs.
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, Graph papers, Real life situations, Calculators
- Specific Objectives
- Simple number patterns
- Sequence
- Arithmetic sequence
- Geometric sequence
- Determining a term in a sequence
- Arithmetic progression (A.P)
- Geometric progression (G.P)
- Sum of an A.P
- Sum of a G.P
- Application of A.P and G.P to real life situations
Notes
- Sum up to infinity is not required
- Deduction of general rule for simple cases only is necessary
Suggested Resources
- Charts illustrating number patterns, Real life situations, Calculators
- Specific Objectives
- Coordinates in two and three dimensions
- Column and position vectors in three dimensions
- Column vectors in terms of unit vectors i, j and k.
- Magnitude of a vector
- Parallel vectors
- Collinearity
- Proportional division of a line
- Ratio theorem
- Vector methods in geometry
Notes
- Discuss collinearity in two and three dimensional spaces
- Discuss the various vector notations.
- Include column vectors i and j in two dimensions.
Suggested Resources
- Graph papers, Square board, Skeleton model of a cuboid
- Specific Objectives
- Binomial expansion up to power four
- Pascal’s triangle
- Coefficient of terms in binomial expansion
- Computation using binomial expansion
- Evaluation of numerical cases using binomial expansion
Notes
- Binomial expansion by multiplication up to power four only
- Compute numerical cases such as (1.05)10 and (0.99)10 to specified number of terms and significant figures.
- Use calculators but, process of working out the figures must be shown
Suggested Resources
- Charts illustrating Pascal’s Triangle, Calculators
- Specific Objectives
- Probability
- Experimental probability
- Range of probability measure 0≤P(x)≥1
- Probability space
- Theoretical probability
- Discrete and continuous probability (simple cases only)
- Combined events (mutually exclusive and independent event
- Laws of probability
- The tree diagrams
Notes
- Explain the terms; at least, at most, not more than, not less than, with respect to probability.
Suggested Resources
- Real life situations, Probability games, Calculators
- Specific Objectives
- Proportional parts
- Compound proportions
- Ratios and rates of work
- Proportions applied to mixtures
Notes
- Revise ratios and proportions covered previously
- Use unitary and ratio methods
Suggested Resources
- Real life situations, Calculators
- Specific Objectives
- Tables and graphs of given relations
- Graphs of cubic equations
- Graphical solutions of cubic equations
- Average rate of change
- Instantaneous rate of change
- Empirical data and their graphs
- The line of best fit
- Equation of a circle
- Finding of the equation of a circle
- Determining of the centre and radius of a circle
Notes
- Include linear graphs and curves
- Line of best fit does not always start from the origin
- Include equations of a circle
Suggested Resources
- Graph papers, Square boards, Real life situations
- Specific Objectives
- Transformation on the Cartesian plane
- Identification of transformation matrix
- Successive transformations
- Single matrix of transformation for successive transformations.
- Identity matrix and transformation
- Inverse of a transformation
- Area scale factor and determinant of a matrix
- Shear and stretch (include their matrices)
- Isometric and non-isometric
- Application of transformation to real life situations
Notes
- Revise transformation covered previously
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, Peg boards and strings, Rubber bands, Models, Calculators
- Specific objectives
- Mean from assumed mean
- Cumulative frequency table
- Ogive
- Median
- Quartiles
- Range
- Interquartile range
- Quartile deviation
- Variance
- Standard deviation
Notes
- Revise Statistics I
- For measures of dispersion include both ungrouped and grouped data
- Relate quartiles with percentages.
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, Graph papers, Calculators, Data from real life situations
- Specific Objectives
- Common types of Loci
- Perpendicular bisector loci
- Loci of a point at a given distance from a fixed point and a fixed line
- Angle bisector loci
- Constant angle loci
- Other loci under given condition including intersecting foci
- Loci of inequalities
- Loci involving chords
Notes
- Understanding of the language used in locus is important
- Knowledge of geometric construct is a prerequisite
Suggested Resources
- Geometrical patterns, Square boards, Graph papers
- Specific Objectives
- Trigonometric ratios
- Deriving the relation sin x + cos x = 1
- Graphs of trigonometric functions;
- y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tan x
- y = a sin x, y = a cos x,
- y = a tan x, y = a sin bx,
- y = a cos bx, y = a tan bx
- y = a sin (bx ± q),
- y = a cos (bx ± q), y = a tan (bx ± q)
- Simple trigonometric equations amplitude, period, wavelength and phase angle of trigonometric functions.
Notes
- Making a correct table of values from a trigonometric function and correct plotting of points are essential.
- Identification of symmetry and its use in drawing waves is important
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, Graph papers, Charts to illustrate amplitude period and phase angle
- Specific Objectives
- Geometrical properties of common solids
- Skew lines and projection of a line onto a plane
- Length of a line in 3-Dimensional geometry
- The angle between
- a line and a line
- a line and a plane
- a plane and a plane
- Angles between skew lines
Notes
- Revise sketching common solids
- 3-Dimensional models must be used
Suggested Resources
- 3-Dimensional models both skeleton and solid and detachable models objects used in real life situations
- Specific Objectives
- Latitude and longitude(great and small circles)
- The Equator and Greenwich Meridian
- Radii of small and great circles
- Position of a place on the surface of the earth
- Distance between two points along the small and great circles in nautical miles and kilometres.
- Distance in nautical miles and kilometres along a circle of latitude
- Time and longitude
- Speed in knots and Kilometres per hour
Notes
- Revise;
- trigonometric ratios
- length of an arc
- co-ordinates
- Take the Equator and GMT as reference points
- take 1 nm = 1.853 km
- radius of the earth = 6370 km
- Include problems involving speed, time and distance
Suggested Resources
- Globe, Calculator, Ball
- Specific Objectives
- Formation of linear inequalities
- Analytical solutions of linear inequalities
- Solutions of linear inequalities by graphs
- Optimisation (include objective function)
- Application to real life situations
Notes
- Revise on linear inequalities
- Emphasis should be put on key words and their related symbols such as at least, less than, at most, more than, not less than, not more than and so on.
- Specific Objectives
- Average and instantaneous rates of change
- Gradient of a curve at a point
- Gradient of y = x^{n} (where n is a positive integer)
- Delta notation (Δ)
- Derivative of a polynomial
- Equations of tangents and normals to the curve
- Stationery points
- Curve sketching
- Application of differentiation in calculation of distance, velocity and acceleration.
- Maxima and minima
Notes
- Exclude the product and quotient rule in differentiation
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, Graph papers
- Specific Objectives
- Area by counting techniques
- Trapezium rule
- Area using trapezium rule
- Mid-ordinate
- Area by the mid-ordinate rule
Notes
- Revise area of irregular shapes and area of a trapezium
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, Graph papers, Tracing papers for tracing irregular shapes from maps, Worksheet containing practical work on trapezium and mid-ordinate rules
- Specific Objectives
- Differentiation
- Reverse differentiation
- Integration notation and sum of areas of trapezia
- Indefinite and definite integrals
- Area under a curve by integration
- Application in kinematics
Notes
- Revise differentiation
- Consider area of curves above and below the x – axis
- Curve-sketching is important in identifying the required region
- Avoid substitution methods of integration.
- Compare approximation of area by; trapezoidal rule, mid- ordinate rule and by integration.
- If a curve is to be drawn either it should not exceed the 3 degree or a table of values is given for students to plot and draw.
Suggested Resources
- Square boards, Graph papers, Real life situations
KCSE BIOLOGY SYLLABUS
- Specific Objectives
- Definition of biology
- Branches of biology
- Importance of biology
- Characteristics of living organisms
- Comparison between plants and animals
- Practical Activities
- Collecting, observing and recording external features of plants and animals
- Specific Objectives
- Review the use of magnifying lens
- External features of plants and animals
- Necessity and significance of classification
- Major units of classification: (naming)
- Kingdoms
- Monera
- Protoctista
- Fungi
- Plantae
- Animalia (at least one example of each)
- For kingdom plantae and Animalia, cover phylum, division, class, order, family, genus and species. Show relationship between the taxonomic units (give at least one example of each taxon)
- Kingdoms
- Discussion on Binomial nomenclature
- Practical Activities
- Use of collecting nets, cutting instruments and hand lens.
- Collection and detailed observation of:
- small animals e.g. insects
- plants – rhizoids, root systems (taproot, fibrous and adventitious), stems and leaves
- Specific Objectives
- Definition of the cell
- Structure and functions of parts of a light microscope
- Use and care of the light microscope
- Cell structure and functions as seen under:
- a light microscope
- an electron microscope
- Preparation of temporary slides of plant cells
- Estimation of cell size
- Cell specialization, tissues, organs and organ systems
- Observe, identify, draw and state the functions of parts of the light microscope
- Prepare and observe temporary slides of plant cells
- Observe permanent slides of animal cells
- Comparison between plant and animal cells
- Observe, estimate size and calculate magnification of plant cells
- Specific Objectives
- Meaning of cell physiology
- Structure and properties of cell membrane (Theories of membrane structure not required)
- Physiological processes – diffusion, osmosis and active transport
- Factors affecting diffusion, osmosis and active transport
- Role of diffusion, osmosis and active transport in living organisms
- Water relations in plant and animal cells: turgor, plasmolysis, wilting and haemolysis
- Practical Activities
- Diffusion as demonstrated with Potassium permanganate or potassium iodide/flower dyes/coloured plant extracts/smoke
- Experiments with visking tubing and living tissues: fresh arrow roots/cassava/sweet potatoes/leaf petioles/irish potatoes/carrots
- Plasmolysis can be demonstrated by using any of the following: spirogyra, epidermal cells of onion or raw egg that has been put in dilute hydrochloric acid overnight
- Specific Objectives
- Meaning, importance and types of nutrition
- Nutrition in plants (autotrophism)
- Definition of photosynthesis and its importance in nature
- Adaptations of leaf to photosynthesis
- Structure and function of chloroplast
- Process of photosynthesis – light and dark stages (omit details of electron transport system and chemical details of carbon dioxide fixation)
- Factors influencing photosynthesis
- – light intensity
- – carbon dioxide concentration
- – water
- – temperature
- Chemical compounds which constitute living organisms
- Chemical composition and functions of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (omit details of chemical structure of these compounds and mineral salts in plant nutrition).
- Properties and functions of enzymes (omit lock and key hypothesis)
- Nutrition in Animals (heterotrophism)
- Meaning and types of heterotrophism
- Modes of feeding in animals
- Dentition of a named carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous mammal
- Adaptation of the three types of dentition to feeding
- Internal structure of mammalian teeth
- Common dental diseases, their causes and treatment
- Digestive system and digestion in a mammal (human)
- Digestive system, regions, glands and organs associated with digestion
- Ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion
- Importance of vitamins, mineral salts, roughage and water in human nutrition
- Factors determining energy requirements in humans
- Practical Activities
- Carry out experiments on factors affecting photosynthesis
- Observe stomata distribution
- Carry out food test experiments
- Carry out experiments on factors affecting enzymatic activities
- Investigate presence of enzymes in living tissues (plants and animals)
- Observe, identify, draw and label different types of mammalian teeth
- Carry out dissection of a small mammal to observe digestive system and associated organs (demonstration)
- Specific Objectives
- Meaning and importance of transport systems
- Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts
- Internal structure of root and root hairs
- Absorption of water
- Active uptake of mineral salts
- Transpiration
- Definition of transpiration
- Review of the structure of the leaf
- Structure and function of xylem
- Factors affecting transpiration
- Forces involved in water movement in plants
- Transpiration pull
- Cohesion and adhesion
- Capillarity
- Root pressure
- Translocation
- Structure and function of phloem
- Materials translocated (omit mechanisms of translocation)
- Comparison between open and closed circulatory system
- Mammalian Circulatory System
- Structure and function of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries
- Diseases and defects of the circulatory system (Thrombosis, Varicose veins, Arterio-sclerosis) and how to control them.
- The Structure and Functions of Blood
- Composition of blood
- Functions of blood plasma
- The structure and functions of red blood cells and white blood
- Mechanism of blood clotting and its importance
- Blood groups (ABO system and the Rhesus factor)
- Immune responses
- Natural and artificial immunity
- Allergic reactions
- Importance of vaccinations against diseases (Tuberculosis, Poliomyletis, Measles, Diphtheria, Whooping cough)
- Practical Activities
- Observe permanent slides of sections of stems and roots
- Carry out experiments to compare transpiration on lower and upper leaf surfaces
- Observe wall charts/models
- Analyse data on transpiration rate under different environmental conditions in Plants
- Dissect a small mammal and observe its transport system (demonstration)
- Make a longitudinal section of the mammalian heart to display the chambers and associated blood vessels
- Record pulse rate at the wrist before and after vigorous activities and analyse the results
- Demonstrate the unidirectional flow of blood in the cutaneous veins of the fore arm
- Specific Objectives
- Gaseous exchange in living organisms (necessity)
- Gaseous Exchange in Plants
- Mechanisms of opening and closing of stomata
- The process of gaseous exchange in root, stem and leaves of both aquatic (floating) and terrestrial plants
- Gaseous Exchange in Animals
- Types and Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces – cell membrane, gills, buccal cavity, skin and lungs
- Mechanism of gaseous exchange in
- Protozoa – amoeba
- Insect – grasshopper
- Fish – bonyfish
- Amphibia – frog
- Mammal – human
- Factors affecting rate of breathing in humans
- Respiratory diseases: Asthma, Bronchitis, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Pneumonia and whooping cough
- Practical Activities
- Observe permanent slides of cross- sections of aerial and aquatic leaves and stems
- Examine the distribution of spiracles on grasshopper or locust
- Examine the gills of a bony fish
- Dissect a small mammal and identify the structures of the respiratory system (demonstration) Construct and use models to demonstrate breathing mechanisms in a mammal (human) Demonstrate the effect of exercise on the rate of breathing
- Specific Objectives
- Meaning and significance of respiration
- Tissue respiration
- Mitochondrion – structure and function
- Aerobic respiration (Details of kreb’s cycle not required)
- Anaerobic respiration in plants and animals, the products and by-products
- Application of anaerobic respiration in industry and at home
- Compare the energy output of aerobic and anaerobic respiration
- Practical Activities
- Carry out experiments to Investigate
- The gas produced when food is burnt
- The gas produced during fermentation
- Heat production by germinating seeds
- Carry out experiments to Investigate
- Specific Objectives
- Excretion in Plants
- Methods of excretion in plants
- Useful and harmful excretory products of plants and their economic importance e.g. caffeine in tea and coffee, quinine, tannins, colchicines, cocaine, rubber, gum, papain (from pawpaw) and products of cannabis sativa (bhang) and khat (miraa)
- Excretion and homeostasis in Animals
- Distinction between excretion, homeostasis and egestion
- Excretion in a named unicellular organism (protozoa)
- Structure and functions of skin and kidney
- Neuro-endocrine system and homeostasis
- Water balance (blood osmotic pressure)
- Blood sugar level (control)
- Temperature regulation (mention the role of hypothalamus)
- Common kidney diseases, their symptoms and possible methods of prevention and control
- The role of the skin in thermoregulation, salt and water balance.
- Major functions of the liver and their contributions to homeostasis
- Common diseases of the liver, their symptoms and possible methods of prevention/control
- Practical Activities
- Examine and draw the mammalian kidney
- Make vertical sections of the kidney to identify cortex and medulla
- Observe permanent slides of mammalian skin
- Investigate effect of catalase enzyme on hydrogen peroxide
- Specific Objectives
- Review of binomial nomenclature
- General principles of classification
- General characteristics of kingdoms
- Monera
- Protoctista
- Fungi
- Plantae
- Animalia
- Main characteristics of major divisions of plantae
- Bryophyta
- Pteridophyta
- Spermatophyta (cover only up to class level)
- Main Characteristics of the Phyla Arthropoda and Chordata (cover up to classes as shown below)
- Arthropoda
- Diplopoda
- Chilopoda
- Insecta
- Crustacea
- Arachnida
- Chordata
- Pisces
- Amphibia
- Reptilia
- Aves
- Mammalia
- Arthropoda
- Construction and use of simple dichotomous keys based on observable features of plants and animals
- Practical Activities
- Examine live/preserved specimen or photographs of representatives of major divisions of plantae and phyla arthropoda and chordata
- Construct simple dichotomous keys using leaves/parts of common plants/arthropods/ common chordates in the local environment
- Use dichotomous keys to identify organisms
- Specific Objectives
- Concepts of Ecology
- Ecology
- Habitat
- Niche
- Population
- Community Ecosystem
- Biomass
- Carrying capacity
- Factors in an ecosystem
- Abiotic factors (environmental factors) – light, temperature, atmospheric pressure, salinity, humidity, pH and wind
- Biotic factors
- Inter-relationships – competition, predation, saprophytism, parasitism and symbiosis
- Nitrogen cycle
- Energy flow in an ecosystem. Food chains, food webs, decomposers, pyramid of numbers and pyramid of biomass
- Population estimation methods
- Quadrat method
- Line transect
- Belt transect
- Capture – recapture method
- Adaptations of plants to various habitats
- Xerophytes
- Mesophytes (common terrestrial plants)
- Hydrophytes – Nymphea, Salvinia, spp
- Halophytes — mangrove
- Effect of pollution on human beings and other organisms: Causes, effects and control of pollutants in air, water and soil
- Human diseases
- Bacterial diseases – Cholera and Typhoid
- Protozoa – Malaria and Amoebic dysentry (Amoebiasis)
- Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma
- Mode of transmission
- Effects of the parasites on the hosts
- Adaptive characteristics of the parasites
- Control/prevention of diseases associated with the parasites
- Practical Activities
- Collect, record, analyse and interpret data from ecological studies (examples of food chains should be used to join up to make food webs. Calculate ratios of consumers to producers from data provided)
- Examine specimens of hydrophytes, mesophytes and xerophytes, and identify the features that adapt them to their habitats
- Examine roots of legumes taken from fertile and poor soils to compare the number of root nodules
- Estimate populations using sampling methods (for quadrat and line/belt transect, measure pl-1, temperature, wind direction and humidity)
- Specific Objectives
- Concept of reproduction
- Importance of reproduction
- Chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis (mention gamete formation)
- Asexual reproduction
- Binary fission in amoeba
- Spore formation/reproduction in mucor/Rhizopus
- Budding in yeast
- Sexual reproduction in plants
- Structure and functions of parts of named insect and wind pollinated flowers
- Pollination and agents of pollination
- Features and mechanisms that hinder self-pollination and self fertilization
- The process of fertilization
- Fruit and seed formation and dispersal
- Sexual reproduction in animals
- External fertilization in amphibians
- Structure of the reproductive system of a named mammal (human) functions
- Functions of the parts of reproductive system
- Fertilization, implantation and the role of placenta
- Gestation period
- Role of hormones in reproduction in humans (secondary sexual characteristics, menstrual cycle)
- Sexually transmitted infections (S.T.Is)
- Gonorrhea
- Herpes simplex
- Syphilis, Trichomoniasis, Hepatitis, Candidiasis
- HIV/AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) – emphasize preventive measures especially change of behaviour
- Advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction
- Practical Activities
- Examine stages of mitosis using squashed young onion tip/charts/electron micrographs
- Examine stages of meiosis using anthers of a flower
- Grow bread mould and examine using a hand lens
- Examine spores in sac of a fern
- Examine various types of insect and wind pollinated flowers and relate structure to function
- Collect, classify and dissect fruits and seeds and relate their structure to mode of dispersal
- Dissect a small mammal to show organs associated with reproduction (demonstration)
- Specific Objectives
- Concepts of growth and development
- Growth and development in plants
- Dormancy and ways of breaking it
- Conditions necessary for germination
- Epigeal and hypogeal germination
- Measurement of one aspect of growth in a named seedling e.g. region of growth
- Primary and secondary growth
- Role of growth hormones in plants
- Apical dominance
- Growth and development in animals
- Complete and incomplete metamorphosis in insects
- Role of growth hormones in insects
- Practical Activities
- Examine, draw and differentiate seeds
- Determine the region of growth in shoots and roots
- Investigate hypogeal and epigeal germination
- Carry out experiments to demonstrate apical dominance
- Observe stages of complete and incomplete metamorphosis in insects
- Project Work:
- Measure either length of internodes/ breadth of leaves/height/dry weight of seedlings over a known period of time, analyse and present the data obtained in form of graphs, charts or histograms
- Specific Objectives
- Concepts of genetics
- Variation within plant and animal species
- Review of chromosomes
- Brief mention of genes and DNA (without details of the molecular structure of genes and DNA)
- First law of heredity
- Mendel’s experiments – monohybrid inheritance (3:1 ratio)
- Complete and incomplete dominance, backcross/testcross
- Inheritance of ABO blood groups and Rh factor
- Sex determination in humans
- Linkage
- Sex linked genes, sex linked characteristics e.g. Colour blindness, Haemophilia, Hairy ears and Nose
- Mutations
- Types of mutations
- Causes and consequences of chromosomal mutations
- Gene mutations(only cover the following examples of genetic disorders: Albinism, Sickle cell anaemia, Haemophilia, Colour blindness)
- Practical applications of genetics
- Blood transfusion
- Plant and animal breeding using artificial selection
- Genetic counselling
- Genetic engineering
- Practical Activities
- Measure and record heights of class members and plot the data on graphs
- Demonstrate chromosome behaviour in mitosis and meiosis by using clay / plasticine / insulated coloured wires/coloured thread
- Carry out investigations on finger prints and tongue rolling
- Specific Objectives
- Meaning of evolution
- The origin of life
- Special creation
- Chemical evolution (Brief explanation required)
- Evidences for organic evolution
- Fossil records – brief mention of human evolution
- Geographical distribution – continental drift
- Comparative embryology
- Comparative anatomy (Convergent and divergent evolution based on homology and analogy)
- Cell biology – occurrence of cell organelles and blood pigments
- Mechanisms of evolution
- Lamarck’s theory (Brief mention)
- Evolution by natural selection
- Natural selection in action e.g. peppered moth (industrial melanism)
- Resistance to drugs, pesticides and antibiotics
- Practical Activities
- Compare vertebrate limbs
- Compare wings of birds and insects
- Education tour to an archaeological site/local museum
- Specific Objectives
- Meaning of stimulus, response and irritability
- Reception, response and coordination in plants
- Response to a variety of external stimuli
- Tropisms and tactic movements and their survival values
- Production of auxins and their effects on plant growth
- Reception, responses and coordination in animals
- Components of the nervous system in a mammal
- Structure and functions of the neurons
- Functions of major parts of human brain
- Simple and conditioned reflex actions
- The role of hormones in coordination in a mammal
- Effects of over secretion and under secretion of adrenaline and thyroxine in humans
- Functional differences and similarities between endocrine and nervous systems
- Effects of drug abuse on the human health
- Structure and functions of parts of the mammalian eye (human)
- Accommodation, image formation and interpretations
- Common eye defects and their corrections
- Structure and functions of parts of the mammalian ear (human)
- Hearing (omit details of cochlea)
- Balance and posture (mention only parts involved)
- Practical Activities
- Carry out experiments to investigate tactic responses e.g. chemotaxis – use any of the following organisms: worker termites/fly maggots/earth worms/honey bee/grasshoppers/ woodlice
- Carry out experiments on tropisms and etiolation
- Determine the distance of blind spot
- Carry out knee jerk experiment
- Specific Objectives
- Plants
- Necessity for support and movement in plants
- Review of tissue distribution in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants (Histological details of tissues are not required)
- Animals
- Necessity for support and movement in animals
- Types and functions of the skeleton
- Exoskeleton in arthropods
- Endoskeleton in vertebrate
- Locomotion in a finned fish
- Identification of the bones of axial and appendicular skeletons (names of individual bones of coccyx not required)
- Types and functions of movable joints (ball and socket, hinge joint)
- Structure, function and location of cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscles (Details of fine structure not required)
- Role of muscles in the arm in humans
- Practical Activities
- Observe permanent slides of transverse sections of the stems of herbaceous and woody plants
- Observe wilting in young herbaceous plants
- Examine the exoskeleton in arthropods
- Observe and identify external features of a finned fish
- Examine and draw different types of bones in mammals
KCSE CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS
- Specific Objectives
- Review the following topics
- Properties of matter
- States of matter
- Mixtures and their separations
- Conductors and non-conductors of electricity
- Mention of drugs (prescription, dosage and abuse)
- Chemistry and the Society
- Definition of chemistry and its role in the society
- Chemistry Laboratory
- Heating apparatus (Bunsen burner, spirit lamp, candle, gas or kerosene stove and electric heater)
- Parts of a Bunsen burner and its flame
- Measuring apparatus (volume, temperature, mass, time)
- Other apparatus (glass ware, spatula, deflagrating spoon, crucible wire gauze etc)
- Laboratory safety rules.
- Specific Objectives
- Separation of Mixtures
- Filtration, evaporation and condensation
- Distillation (simple and fractional), chromatography, solvent extraction as a method of extracting oil from nut seeds, crystallization, separation by using separating funnel, sublimation and decantation
- Simple criteria for purity; melting point and boiling point.
- Effect of heat on substances
- States of matter (solid, liquid, gases); The Kinetic theory
- Melting and boiling, condensation and evaporation of liquids in terms of kinetic
- Permanent and non-permanent changes (illustrate using iodine, wax, copper (lI) sulphate crystals, potassium manganate (VII), zinc (Il) oxide etc.)
- Constituents of matter
- Elements, atoms, molecules and compounds
- Names and symbols of common elements
- Simple word equations
- Applications
- Fractional distillation of crude oil (eg. Changamwe oil refinery) and liquid air, salt extraction e.g. Magadi Soda Company and Ngomeni; removal of stains from fabrics (dry cleaning); obtaining cream from milk.
- Projects
- Extraction of natural dyes, medicines and oils from plants
- Construction and use of a fractionating column
- Specific Objectives
- Acid/Base indicators
- Plant-extracts as simple acid-base indicators
- Common acid-base indicators, universal indicator and pH scale
- Acidic, neutral and basic/alkaline solutions illustrated by the use of the following examples; water, aqueous solution/suspension, lemon juice, soap, wood ash, baking powder, anti-acid tablets and powders, toothpaste, sour milk, ammonia, ammonium sulphate, sodium chloride sodium hydroxide, carbon (IV) oxide, sulphur (IV) oxide, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, calcium hydroxide and magnesium oxide.
- Simple properties of acids and bases
- Reaction of dilute acids with metals, metal oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and hydrogen carbonates
- Effects of acids on substances
- Applications
- Uses of acids and bases
- Projects
- Investigate various plant-extracts and use them as acid/base indicators
- Specific Objectives
- Composition of Air
- Approximate percentage of nitrogen and oxygen in air by volume (mention of carbon dioxide and noble gases as other constituents of air)
- Quantative determination of oxygen in air using copper, iron fillings and burning candle.
- Burning of substances in air; carbon, sulphur, phosphorus (CARE), sodium and copper
- Oxygen as an active part of air (mass changes involved)
- Fractional distillation of liquefied air
- Rusting: conditions, composition and prevention
- Oxygen
- Laboratory preparation of oxygen using 20 volume by volume (v/v) hydrogen peroxide with manganese(IV) oxide or reaction of sodium peroxide with water (relate methods of collection to the properties of the gas)
- Properties; physical and chemical
- Combustion of elements in oxygen (metals and non- metals)
- Competition for combined oxygen illustrated by the reaction of magnesium with carbon(IV) oxide, lead(II) oxide) and copper(Il) oxide
- Mention atmospheric pollution due to burning in oxygen
- Reactivity Series
- Order of reactivity of elements from reaction with oxygen: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, carbon, zinc, iron, lead and copper. (It is not possible to establish full series practically)
- Uses: oxy -acetylene in welding; life support functions
- Application
- Extraction of metals (use the concept of reactivity series only)
- Projects
- Determination of oxygen in water from different sources.
- Investigate industrial processes of large scale oxygen production (e.g. the British Oxygen Company (BOC) Kenya Limited).
- Specific Objectives
- Water
- Sources of water: Burning of organic matter e.g. burning candle in air (test for carbon(lV) oxide and water vapour using calcium hydroxide and cobalt chloride paper or anhydrous copper sulphate respectively)
- Water as an oxide of hydrogen.
- Reaction of sodium, calcium, magnesium with cold water and reaction of magnesium, zinc, iron with steam
- Hydrogen
- Laboratory preparation of hydrogen by reacting a metal with a dilute acid. (relate methods of collection to properties of the gas). Test for hydrogen.
- Properties; physical and chemical.
- Oxidation and reduction (oxygen gain and removal only) e.g. in metal oxide. hydrogen reaction. (Caution: experiments involving the burning of hydrogen gas are explosive).
- Uses (manufacture of margarine, rocket fuels, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, Oxy-hydrogen flame for welding and weather balloons.
- Project
- Identification of common pollutants of water from local sources and suggesting their control
- Specific Objectives
- The Structure of the Atom
- Names and symbols of the first twenty elements of the periodic table.
- Simple structure of the atom; protons, electrons and neutrons: electron energy levels in atoms.
- Atomic characteristics
- Definitions of atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass (reference C-12): examples of isotopes
- Calculations of relative atomic mass from relative abundance of isotopes of an element
- The periodic table
- Build up of the periodic table for the first twenty elements on the basis of energy levels.
- Rows (periods)
- Columns (groups)
- Build up of the periodic table for the first twenty elements on the basis of energy levels.
- Ion formation
- Formation of simple ions (cations and anions): qualitative treatment of the ionisation energy and electron affinity.
- Writing of the electron arrangement of ions formed from atoms: lithium, sodium. fluorine, chlorine, aluminium. magnesium and Sulphur: definition of valency and oxidation numbers.
- Derive valency and oxidation number of an element from atoms: its position in the periodic table
- Names and formulae of common radicals
- Use of valencies in determining the chemical formulae of some common compounds
- Writing simple balanced chemical equations
- Project
- Atomic model construction
The use of chemical equations with state symbols should be emphasised henceforth
- Specific Objectives
- Alkali metals (Group 1) (Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium)
- Electron arrangement, gradation in size of the atom, ion and trends in ionisation energy.
- Physical properties; appearance, melting point, boiling point, thermal and electrical conductivity
- Reaction with air, water and chlorine.
- Similarity of ions and formulae of hydroxides, oxides and chlorides of alkali metals
- Uses of alkali metals (sodium only).
- Alkaline-earth metals (Group 2) (Beryllium, Magnesium, and Calcium)
- Electron arrangement, gradation in size of atom, ion and trends of ionisation energy
- Physical properties; appearance, melting point, boiling point, thermal and electrical conductivity
- Reaction with air, water, chlorine and dilute acids. (Caution: Reaction between calcium and acid is violent. Use very dilute acid)
- Similarity of ions and formulae of oxides, hydroxides and chloride
- Importance of alkaline-earth metals
- Halogens (Group 7); (Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine)
- Electron configuration of fluorine and chlorine, gradation in size of atoms and ions
- Physical properties (appearance, melting point, boiling point, thermal and electrical conductivity)
- Reaction with metals, sodium, zinc, iron and water
- Similarity of ions and formulae of compounds
- Importance of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine
- Noble gases (group 8); (Helium, Neon, Argon)
- Electron arrangement and gradation in size of atoms
- Electron arrangement – the basis of low reactivity of helium, neon and argon
- Importance of noble gases
- Properties and trends across a period
- Period three elements (sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine and argon)
- Electron arrangement of the elements
- Physical properties of period three elements (atomic size, ionisation energy, melting point, boiling point, thermal and electrical conductivity)
- Reaction of period three elements with oxygen, water and dilute acids (Caution: Reaction of sodium with acids is explosive; Give theoretical treatment only)
- Project
- Construction of models of the Periodic table
- Specific Objectives
- The role of outer electrons in chemical bonding
- Significance of the outer electrons in chemical bonding.
- The noble gas electron arrangement
- Electron transfer and ionic bonding
- Electron sharing and covalent bonding
- Use dot (.) and cross (x) diagrams to illustrate bonding, electrostatic forces of attraction in the following: molecular (iodine), giant covalent (diamond, graphite and silicon (IV) oxide), giant ionic (sodium chloride) and giant metallic (copper)
- Other types of bonds: coordinate, hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces of attraction (simple explanation only)
- The influence of hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces on physical properties (melting point, boiling point, solubility, electrical and thermal conductivity)
- Types of bonds across a period (period 3)
- Changes in types of chemical bonds in oxides and chlorides of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorous, Sulphur and chlorine. Note: Use of models to illustrate bonding should be encouraged.
- Applications
- Selection of materials for various uses; e.g. diamond, graphite and aluminium
- Project
- Investigation of materials in terms of their structure and bonding.
- Specific Objectives
- Method of preparing salts
- Preparation of soluble salts by reaction of acids with; metals, metal hydroxides, metal oxides, metal carbonates and metal hydrogen carbonates
- Preparation of insoluble salts by precipitation (ionic equations required)
- Direct combination reaction (e.g. sodium with chlorine, iron with sulphur)
- Types of salts; normal, acid and double salts.
- Solubility of salts
- Solubility of sulphates, chlorides, nitrates and carbonates in water
- Relationship between method of preparation and solubility
- Note: The solubility of hydroxides and oxides should be considered along with others.
- Action of heat on salts
- Effects of heat on the following salts; carbonates, nitrates, sulphates and hydrated salts (include ammonium salts)
- Applications
- – use of lime to change soil PH
- – use of salts as anti-acids
- – use of salts as inorganic fertilizers.
- Project
- Analysing anti-acid drugs
- Specific Objectives
- Conduction of electricity
- Conductors and non-conductors
- Test of conduction of electricity by:
- Solids, metals and non-metals (wood, aluminium foil, sodium chloride, sugar and lead (II) bromide)
- Aqueous solutions of: sugar, urea, copper (II) chloride, sodium chloride and mineral acids.
- Melts: Sulphur, lead (II) bromide or lead (II) iodide and sugar
- Electrolytes and non-electrolytes
- Ions as the particles in electrolyte solutions and melts
- Molecules as the particles in non-electrolyte solutions and melts
- Electrolysis
- Passage of a direct electric current through an electrolyte (electrolysis of lead (II) bromide or lead (II) iodide
- Anode and cathode
- Applications of electrolysis
- Electroplating
- Production and purifications of metals
Details of the processes not required at this level
- Specific Objectives
- Forms of carbon
- Diamond, graphite and charcoal: structure, physical properties and uses (relate uses to structure and physical properties)
- Chemical properties of carbon
- Consider combustion, reaction with acids and reducing action
- Preparation and properties of Carbon (IV) oxide (carbon dioxide)
- (Relate methods of collection to the properties of the gas)
- Reactions of the gas with water, calcium hydroxide and alkalis.
- Uses of carbon(IV) oxide (carbon dioxide)
- Preparation and properties of carbon(II) oxide (carbon monoxide)
- Preparation of carbon(II) oxide (carbon monoxide). Physical properties.
- Chemical properties; combustion, reducing action, poisonous nature such as car exhausts fumes and charcoal fire
- Note: only theoretical treatment required because of its poisonous nature
- Carbonate, and hydrogen carbonates
- Action of heat and dilute acids on some carbonatates and hydrogen carbonates
- Production and manufacture of sodium carbonate (Magadi Soda Company and solvay process)
- Note: Use simple schematic diagrams to illustrate Solvay process.
- Importance of carbon and its oxides
- Carbon cycle
- Soft drinks manufacture
- Fire extinguishers
- The effects of Carbon(IV) oxide (carbon dioxide) and carbon(Il) oxide (carbon monoxide) on the environment
- Projects
- construction and use of simple fire extinguishers
- construction of carbon cycle chart
- Specific Objectives
- Boyle’s law and Charles’ law
- Boyle’s law, Charles’ law and combined gas laws
- Explanation of the laws (use graphs to illustrate)
- Calculations involving gas laws
- NOTE: Use of SI units should be emphasized
- Graham’s laws of diffusion
- Experiments illustrating diffusion of bromine gas, dissolving of copper (II) sulphate crystals or potassium manganate (VII) crystals in water. Explain diffusion in terms of kinetic energy.
- Relationship between the rate of diffusion and density or relative molecular mass of gas (illustrate with ammonia or hydrogen chloride)
- Calculations on diffusion
- Specific Objectives
- The mole as a basic unit
- The mole as a basic unit. Molar mass
- Relative atomic mass (reference to carbon – 12) the mole as a number of particles (illustrated using ‘counting by weighing’ experiments)
- Conversion of mass in grams to moles and vice versa (consider atoms, molecules and compounds)
- Determination of formulae:
- Empirical and molecular formulae; quantitative determination of composition of magnesium oxide and copper(II) oxide
- Molar solutions
- Preparations of molar solutions. Molarity of a solution.
- Concentration and dilution
- Stoichiometry of chemical reactions. (Use of ionic and fi formulae equations in calculation of reacting quantities). Reactions that may be considered;
- Ba^{2+}(aq) |+ C0_{3}^{2-}(aq) → BaCO_{3} (s) (precipitation)
- Pb^{2+}(aq) + 2I^{–} (aq) → PbI_{2} (s) (precipitation)
- Cu^{2+} (aq) + Fe(s) → Cu(s) + Fe^{2+ }(displacement)
- Evolution of gas by action of an acid on solids e.g.
- Na_{2}CO_{3} (s) + 2HCI(aq) → 2NaCI(aq) + C0_{2}(g) +H_{2}O
- Acid/base titrations (use of pippete fillers recommended) (Use balanced ionic and full formulae equations in calculation of reacting quantities.)
- Redox titration involving acidified MnO^{–}_{4} /Fe^{2+} and Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-}/Fe^{2+} (writing of redox equations not required)
- Molar gas volume
- Molar gas volume and atomicity of gases
- Avogadro’s and Gay Lussac’s laws and related calculations
- Project
- Carrying out Counting by weighing experiments
- Specific Objectives
- Alkanes
- Definition of a hydrocarbon
- General formula: occurrence, nomenclature (consider straight chain alkanes of up to ten carbon atoms); fractional distillation of crude oil
- Isomerism (butane and pentane)
- Preparation of methane ethane
- Trends in physical properties (melting point, boiling density and solubility in water and in organic solvents)
- Chemical properties: burning and substitution reactions – with chlorine or bromine (details of reaction mechanism not required)
- Uses of alkanes
- Alkenes
- General formula, nomenclature (consider straight chain alkenes of up to six carbon atoms)
- Isomerism (butene and pentene)
- Preparation of ethene; trends in physical properties (melting point, boiling point, solubility in water and non polar solvent)
- chemical properties (combustion, addition of chlorine, bromine, hydrogen, hydrogen halides, and ethene).(details of mechanism not required)
- Test for unsaturation (use acidified potassium manganate (VII) or bromine water)
- Uses of alkenes
- Alkynes
- General formula, nomenclature (consider straight chain alkenes of up to six carbon atoms)
- Isomerism (butyne)
- Preparation of ethyne; trends in physical properties (melting point, boiling point, solubility in water and non-polar solvent)
- Chemical properties (combustion, addition of chlorine, bromine, hydrogen, hydrogen halides)(details of mechanism not required)
- Uses of alkenes
- Specific Objectives
- Isolation of nitrogen gas from air
- Isolation of nitrogen gas from air in laboratory and in industry.
- Laboratory preparation of nitrogen gas
- Laboratory preparation of nitrogen gas
- Properties
- – inert character
- – burning magnesium and sulphur in nitrogen gas
- Uses of nitrogen gas
- Oxides of nitrogen (Nitrogen (I) oxide, Nitrogen (II) oxide, Nitrogen (IV) oxide)
- Laboratory preparations
- Properties and uses of the oxides.
- Ammmonia
- Laboratory preparation and properties of ammonia gas (relate method of collection to the properties of the gas):
- Solubility in water
- – reaction of aqueous ammonia (NH_{4}OH) with cations.
- – reaction with air/oxygen (catalysed and uncatalysed), copper (lI) oxide and hydrogen chloride,
- Manufacture of ammonia by Haber process (state optimum conditions only)
- Uses of ammonia
- Fertilizers: mention of various nitrogen containing fertilizers, (sulphates nitrates and phosphate), amount of nitrogen in various fertilizers.
- Nitric acid
- Laboratory preparation and manufacture of nitric acid
- Reaction of dilute nitric acid with; metals, carbonates, hydroxides and oxides
- Reaction of concentrated nitric acid as an oxidizing agent; iron (Il) solution, Sulphur and copper metal
- Uses of nitric acid
- Action of heat on nitrates
- Effects of heat on nitrates of sodium, potassium, copper, lead and silver (silver nitrate may be considered theoretically due to its cost)
- Test for nitrates
- Pollution effects of nitrogen compounds in the environment
- Specific Objectives
- Occurrence and extraction of Sulphur
- Extraction by Frasch process
- Allotropes of sulphur
- Physical and chemical properties of sulphur
- Uses of sulphur
- Sulphur(IV) oxide (Sulphur dioxide)
- Preparation (relate method of collection to properties of the gas
- Properties (acid character, bleaching action, reducing action e.g. test with potassium chromate(Vl) and combination with oxygen to form sulphur (Vl) oxide (Sulphur trioxide). Oxidizing action e.g. with magnesium and hydrogen sulphide
- Test for sulphate and sulphite ions
- Uses of sulphur (IV) oxide
- Manufacture of Sulphuric acid
- Contact process (state optimum conditions only) e.g. Kel Chemical Ltd in Thika, and East Africa Heavy Chemicals, Webuye
- Pollution control in contact process
- Properties of Sulphuric acid
- Reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid as;
- Dehydrating agent (sucrose, ethanol, hydrated copper (II) sulphate)
- Oxidizing agent (copper, zinc, sulphur and carbon)
- Displacement reaction (sodium chloride solid, potassium nitrate solid)
- Reactions of dilute sulphuric acid with: metals, carbonates, metal hydroxides and metal oxides
- Reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid as;
- Hydrogen sulphide
- Preparation and physical properties
- Chemical properties (reducing action)
- Note: Only theoretical treatment is required
- Pollution of atmosphere by compounds of sulphur (hydrogen sulphide and oxides of sulphur)
- Specific Objectives
- Chlorine
- Preparation of chlorine by reaction of concentrated hydrochloric acid with manganese (IV) oxide or any other suitable oxidizing agent (relate method of collection to its properties)
- Physical properties
- Chemical properties
- Reactions of chlorine with:
- Hydrogen
- Metals (magnesium and iron)
- Non-metals: phosphorous (caution!)
- Reducing agents (hydrogen sulphide, sulphites and ammonia)
- Water and alkali solutions (both dilute and concentrated)
- Bromides and iodides (displacement reactions)
- Bleaching action
- Test for chlorides in dry solids and aqueous solution
- Uses of chlorine
- Hydrogen Chloride
- Preparation of hydrogen chloride gas by reaction of sodium chloride with concentrated sulphuric acid (relate method of collection to properties of the gas)
- Properties (physical and chemical)
- Effect of solvent on the properties of hydrogen chloride
- Reactions of aqueous hydrogen chloride Compare the properties of aqueous hydrogen chloride and a solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene
- – acid nature; litmus, reaction with metals, bases, carbonates and hydrogen carbonates
- – redox reaction with potassium manganate (VII) to produce chlorine
- Test for hydrogen chloride gas with ammonia
- Reactions of aqueous hydrogen chloride Compare the properties of aqueous hydrogen chloride and a solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene
- Uses of hydrogen chloride gas
- Industrial manufacture of hydrochloric acid (e.g. Pan Paper, Webuye)
- Uses of hydrochloric acid
- Pollution of environment by chlorine and its compounds e.g. CFC, DDT etc.
- Projects
- Determination of chlorine content of various bleaching powders and liquids
- Investigation of water purification and treatment
- Specific Objectives
- Acids and Bases
- Acids as substances which dissociate in water to give hydrogen ions
- Bases as substances which dissociate in water to give hydroxide ions
- Weak and strong acids and bases; pH scale and electrical conductivity (use aqueous solutions of; hydrochloric acid, ethanojc acid, sodium hydroxide and ammonia of the same concentration to illustrate)
- Characteristics of Amphoteric oxides and hydroxides
- Reaction with acids and alkalis (aluminium oxide, zinc(II) oxide, zinc hydroxide lead hydroxide, and aluminium hydroxide).
- Effect of solvent.
- Characteristics of hydrogen chloride in methyl benzene and aqueous solution, (illustrate with dry litmus, magnesium and marble chips)
- Reactions of dry and aqueous ammonia
- Salts
- Salts as ionic compounds formed when cations derived from bases combine with anions derived from acids
- Precipitation reactions (use ionic equations)
- Reactions involving the following cations in aqueous solutions: magnesium, calcium, iron (II), iron (III), Barium (II), Zinc (II), Aluminium (III), Copper (II) with; sodium hydroxide, ammonia solution, Chloride, Carbonate, sulphite and sulphate ions
- Complex ions
- Dissolving of specific metal hydroxides in excess aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide solution
- Formulae of the following required, [Cu(NH_{3})_{4}]^{2+} ,[Zn(NH_{3})_{4}]^{ 2+ }[Al(OH)_{4}]^{–} [Pb(OH)_{ 4}]^{ 2-}and [Zn(OH)_{ 4}]^{ 2-}
- Equations not required
- Solubility; definition and relationship with temperature
- Solubility curves for sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, potassium chlorate (V), calcium sulphate and sodium carbonate.
- Fractional crystallization of salts
- Extraction of sodium carbonate from Lake Magadi and sodium chloride at Ngomeni
- Water hardness
- Types of water hardness: causes and effects
- Methods of removal of water hardness; boiling, distillation, precipitation and use of ion exchange
- Projects
- Salt extraction from ash or soil.
- Investigation of water hardness and its removal
- Specific Objectives
- Endothermic and Exothermic reactions
- Enthalpy notation (ΔH) for exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions
- Latent heat
- Molar heat of fusion and vaporisation as evidence of overcoming forces of attraction between particles.
- Quantitative determination of enthalpies
- Formation of hydrogen chloride gas from hydrogen gas and chlorine gas; formation of chloromethane from methane and chlorine gas
- Quantitative determination of enthalpies of:
- Solution (e.g. ammonium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and conc. sulphuric acid)
- Combustion (e.g. methanol/ethanol)
- Displacement (e.g. copper from copper (II) ions by iron or zinc)
- Neutralization (e.g. sodium hydroxide and dilute hydrochloric acid).
- Simple energy level diagrams
- Hess’ Law (energy level diagrams and thermochemical cycles) (use molar enthalpy of formation for illustration)
- Relate heat of solution to hydration and lattice energy
- Common fuels; Energy contents of
- Charcoal, fuel oil, ethanol (methylated spirit), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), petroleum, kerosene and diesel
- Choice of fuel;
- Precautions necessary when using fuels
- Pollution by common fuels (e.g. internal combustion engine)
- Projects
- Comparison of heat energy values of fuels
- Specific Objectives
- Reaction rates
- Definition of rate of reaction
- Collision theory and activation energy (qualitative treatment only)
- Qualitative treatment of the effects of concentration, pressure, temperature, surface area, light and catalysts on rates of reactions. (No reaction mechanisms required).
- Experiments involving the following reactions:
- calcium carbonate (marble chips) with dilute acid (hydrochloric or nitric acid).
- sodium thiosulphate with dilute hydrochloric acid
- metal with dilute acid (e.g. magnesium with hydrochloric acid).
- hydrogen peroxide with various catalysts e.g. manganese (IV) oxide (Graphical representation of results required)
- Reversible reactions
- Equilibrium as the state of balance (example acid/alkali plus indicator, chromate/dichromate, hydrated and anhydrous copper (ll) sulphate)
- The effect of changing concentration, pressure and temperature on position of equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s Principle
- Uses in industrial processes (Contact and Haber processes)
- Specific Objectives
- Redox reactions
- Electron transfer (gain and loss of electrons)
- Determination of oxidation numbers
- Use an illustration of iron (II) (acidified with dilute sulphuric acid) to iron (III) with hydrogen peroxide.
- Identify reactant. Iron (II) (aq), and product Iron (III) (aq), with hydroxide ion. Other examples; sodium/water magnesium/dilute acid (hydrochloric acid/sulphuric acid)
- 21.2.2 Displacement reactions; (as redox reactions)
- Reducing power
- Reaction of metal/metallic cation (M/M^{2+} (aq)). Calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, lead, copper.
- Oxidizing power of halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine only.
- Electrochemical cell
- Qualitative treatment of the electron flow in: Zn (s) | Zn^{2+} (aq) Cu^{2+} (aq) | Cu (s) cell.
- Note: Conventions, vertical line (|) represents a phase boundary where a potential difference develops e.g. Zn (s) | Zn (aq); two vertical parallel lines (||) represent salt bridge.
- Standard electrode potentials (simple calculations involving Eθ values required)
- Electrolysis
- The role of water in electrolysis
- Preferential discharge in electrolysis of the following solutions:
- Sodium chloride
- Dilute sulphuric acid (acidified water).
- Magnesium sulphate
- Electrolysis of copper ( sulphate using graphite and copper electrodes. (product changes in electrolytes)
- Factors affecting preferential discharge
- Quantitative treatment of electrolysis (Note: First Faraday’s law only).
- Applications
- Extraction of metals
- Manufacture of sodium hydroxide, chlorine, hydrogen (electrolysis of brine).
- Copper refining, electroplating
- Projects
- Investigating further electroplating processes, prevention of rusting (cathodic protection), investigate various types of cells.
- Specific Objectives
- Metals: methods of extraction:
- Chief metal ores of: sodium, aluminium, zinc, iron, copper and lead
- General methods of extraction (electrolysis and reduction)
- The electrolytic production of sodium and aluminium
- Extraction of iron, copper, and zinc from their ores.
- Properties of Metals (sodium, aluminium, iron, copper and zinc):
- Physical properties (melting point, boiling point, thermal and electrical conductivity, density, malleability and ductility)
- Chemical properties (reaction with air, water, chlorine, dilute hydrochloric acid and oxidizing acids (concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid)
- (Note: the reaction of sodium and dilute acid is explosive)
- Uses of metals and their alloys (alloys: brass, bronze, steel, duralumin)
- Construction (air craft, bridges etc.),
- Electrical materials (copper)
- Pollution effect of the industrial production of metals on the environment
- Projects
- Analysis of ores
- Construction of a mini blast furnace
- Carrying out iron-smithing
- Specific Objectives
- Alkanols
- General formula (ROH)
- Nomenclature (primary alcohols up to 10 carbon atoms)
- Preparation of alkanols from.
- Hydrolysis of alkenes
- Fermentation of carbohydrates
- Physical properties: Gradual changes in physical properties of primary alkanols (mention hydrogen bonding)
- Chemical properties: Reactions with oxygen (burning), sodium, concentrated sulphuric acid (to give alkenes), ester formation and oxidation to give alkanoic acids
- Uses: Solvents, fuels and pharmaceuticals.
- General formula (ROH)
- Alkanoic acids
- General formula –RCOOH
- Nomenclature (primary alkanoic acids up to 10 carbon atoms)
- Preparation by oxidation of primary alkanols
- Physical properties
- Gradual change in physical properties of alkanoic acids (mention hydrogen bonding)
- Chemical properties
- Acid properties; salt and ester (alkanoates) formation [to 2 carbons only]
- Note: equations involving these reactions are required (state symbols are not required)
- Detergents
- Soapy detergents (soaps)
- Laboratory preparation by hydrolysis of fats or oils with alkalis
- Mode of action
- Water hardness
- Pollution effects
- Soapless detergents
- Manufacture
- Mode of action
- Pollution effect
- Polymers
- Names of some natural polymers and fibres
- Cellulose materials (cotton, wood, paper; silk)
- Hydrocarbons (rubber and its vulcanisation)
- Names of some synthetic polymers and fibres
- Polythene, poychloroethene (pvc)
- Polyphenylethene (polystyrene)
- Terylene, nylon, and Perspex.
- Synthetic rubber
- Preparation properties and uses of synthetic polymers
- Equations to show addition
- Polymerisation for example, formation of polythene, polychloroethene and polyphenylethene
- Advantages and disadvantages of synthetic polymers and fibres over those of natural origin should be mentioned. (include biological degradability of the materials).
- Uses of polymers and fibres, manufacture of beer, spirits, soaps and detergents, drugs, textiles, packaging materials, pipes and tyres.
- Soapy detergents (soaps)
- Projects
- Fermentation of various carbohydrates to produce ethanol
- Soap preparation investigate effects of soap and detergents on aquatic life
- Investigate methods of recycling and disposal of plastics
- Investigation of strength of polymers and fibres
- Specific Objectives
- Stability of isotopes of elements
- Stability of isotopes of elements
- Radioactivity, types of radiation, (alpha (α), beta (β) particles and gamma (γ) rays; characteristics and properties
- Radioactive decay as measured by half-life (t_{1/2}), calculations involving half- life (t_{1/2})
- Nuclear equations: changes in nuclei resulting from radioactive decay by alpha (α), beta (β) particles and gamma (γ) rays
- Qualitative treatment of fission and fusion (mention nuclear reactions as source of energy)
- NB: Nuclear reactions are different from chemical reactions.
- Applications
- Uses and importance of radioisotopes in chemistry, medicine, carbon dating and agriculture.
- Pollution effects of radioactivity
- Dangers of radio isotopes Environmental pollution e.g. the Chernobyl disaster, titanium mining in Kwale